Mexican prosecutors seek arrests of 46 officials in student disappearance probe
Duarte was believed to be hiding out in the United States since an arrest warrant was first issued in 2017.
However last year, under the Lopez Obrador's government, the Attorney General's office said it began a fresh effort "to prepare and submit an extradition request that would meet all the requirements of US law".
Around a dozen former Mexican governors have been charged with corruption or links to organised crime.
Duarte is the first to be arrested under Lopez Obrador, who took office in December 2018.